Visual Argument // A Closer Look


Grounds // A baby car seat costs $217. Alternatively, durex condoms cost $2.50

Warrants // Generalization. Here, durex is showing one example of the costliness of rearing a child. This is one of many examples they could have chosen to prove how much more expensive it is to raise a kid in comparison to purchasing a single condom.

Inferences // Condoms are less expensive than kids, therefore you should consider using them if you do not want to have a child.

Conclusion // This simple advertisement plays off the viewer’s ability to make inferences, and hinges on the cost-associated fears of raising a child.


Grounds // Van Gogh paintings appear blurred, almost out of focus. Blurriness of vision can be remedied with corrective eyewear.

Warrants // Cause. By wearing these glasses the world around you immediately becomes clearer, as shown by the painting coming into focus.

Inferences // Keloptic carries the glasses you need to see correctly, therefore you should keep them in mind the next time you purchase eyewear.

Conclusion // Through over dramatization of post-impressionist painter Van Gogh’s work, this European eyewear company claims it can improve your vision.


Grounds // Volkswagen offers parking assistance in its automobiles. They are extremely confident in its precision.

Warrants // Analogy. This ad relies on illustrating a comparative situation where precision is paramount.

Inferences // Placing the hedgehog so close to the bags around it implies that one false move would cause disaster.

Conclusion // Volkswagen’s parking assistance is so precise, it’s akin to a wild hedgehog centimeters away from an easily popped bag.


Grounds // Jaguar’s new F-Type R Coupe ‘devours the road.’ Audi is a competitor to Jaguar.

Warrants // Analogy. In this advertisement, Jaguar uses its body copy to emphasize visual metaphor. Audi’s logo is represented by a food item, one which could presumably be devoured by a Jaguar vehicle.

Inferences // Representing the competition as edible implies that Jaguar is superior to them.

Conclusion // In comparison to the mighty Jaguar, other competitors are merely a snack.


Grounds // Chevy has a new automobile which features camouflage. The company is very confident in this feature.

Warrants // Cause. In this campaign, Chevy hyperbolically illustrates that by placing their camouflaged truck in a dense wooded area, it becomes invisible.

Inferences // The fact that this image outright does not have the product in it implies that its camouflage is superb. It is advertising a product without even showing it. 

Conclusion // Chevy’s new car has such incredible camouflage that they did not even bother placing it in the photograph – you would not be able to see it anyway. 


Grounds // Most homes do not have diving aquariums in them. New York Lottery’s Power Ball awards winners a lot of money.

Warrants // Generalization and analogy. The aquarium in the above ad is a representation of great wealth, and the many things you could afford with it. The generalization present in this photograph is that if you were able to purchase this installation, you could almost purchase anything.

Inferences // Because having a diving aquarium in your personal home would be incredibly expensive, winning the Power Ball is your best chance of achieving such wealth.

Conclusion // With the amount of money you could win from the Power Ball, you would be “that kind of rich.” This level of wealth would even allow you to instal an aquarium in your home.


Grounds // Dogs love to run and play in beautiful open areas. Dogs who are caged and waiting for adoption cannot play in these fields.

Warrants // Principle. This ad plays off of the viewer’s empathy and want to release that animal from its cage so that it can play. This ad counts on shared general desire in order to motivate the individual to look into the Pedigree adoption drive.

Inferences // I want to let the dogs out of their cage, therefore I should consider adoption.

Conclusion // This ad is effective because it focuses on the presupposed moments following this picture. It counts on the viewer’s ability to imagine the dog in a happier and more playful reality.


Grounds // Our world’s rainforests are being destroyed. These ecosystems are essential for life.

Warrants // Analogy and Cause. By digitally manipulating a rainforest to resemble a set of lungs, WWF is creating visual metaphor. By showing the devastation is a small area, the ad also prompts the viewer to imagine a cause-effect scenario by extrapolating the visual information given. As more and more rainforest is destroyed, breathing (and by extension, life) will become impossible. 

Inferences // Trees are essential to the production of oxygen, and therefore must be preserved and protected.

Conclusion // We are decimating this planet, and by extension, ourselves. If we want to keep breathing, and for our environment to do the same, we must protect it.


Grounds // Tailgating can be disastrous. This ad would be seen while driving.

Warrants // Cause. This ad is incredibly straightforward, and doesn’t lean on the viewer to make any of their own connections or logical inferences. It merely exhibits the direct effect tailgating can have on driver.

Inferences // This ad would be viewed off the side of a highway as onlookers are driving, therefore it prompts and encourages them to give trucks room and stop tailgating.

Conclusion // This blunt advertisement is bolstered by the out-of-the-ordinary nature of its installation. Commuters are used to, and maybe even desensitized to traditional billboards. The 3D element of this ad has an immediacy to it, and demands attention.


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